A programming language is a computer language that comprises a set of instructions that are pre-defined by the user. We need to understand computer language. The computer takes the input from the user and produces the desired output. A programming language is a language that is designed mainly to communicate with the computer. Programming Languages(computer languages) help us to translate our thoughts and ideas to the computer.
Types Of Programming Language:
Each new programming language provides the user to work faster and in an efficient way. Generations of programming language: There are two types of programming languages
- Low-level languages.
- High-level languages
The first- and second-generation programming languages are included in low-level languages. Third, fourth and fifth languages are often called high-level languages.
First-generation programming languages:
First-generation (also known as 1GL) languages are machine languages. It does not use any translator to compile the instructions. The instructions are made in the form of binary numbers that is 0 (zero) and 1(one), where 0 represents false and 1 represents true. It was not very feasible for human use however very easy to interpret by the computer.
Pros and cons of first-generation programming language:
First-generation programming languages are faster and easier to execute as they are executed by the CPU (central processing unit). However, if there is any error it will be very difficult to fix and recognize it. Examples: • Motorola 68000 • Intel 8088
Second-generation programming languages:
These are low-level languages. Second-generation languages or 2GL are related to assembly languages. Unlike the first programming language. Programs can be written figuratively that could be understood by a human. The programs are then converted into machine languages by an assembler. They are used in hard drives but more commonly used in video games. Graphic manipulation applications, and video editing.
Pros and cons of second-generation languages:
They are easy to read by human as the set of instructions are written symbolically. They have a good speed of execution. Examples: • RISC • CISC • X86
Third-generation programming languages:
These are high-level languages. They were introduced in the late 1950s. These are programmer-friendly and efficient to use. It takes input symbolically so that it is easier to interpret and understood by humans. These are machine independent and user friendly. It has much more structured programming which provides a vast understanding of code.
Pros and cons of third programming languages:
It is very easy for the programmer to interpret the coding. It is a processor independent and uses variables with sequences. They’re very flexible and generally do not have any restrictions. However, they have a more expensive development cost. Examples: • C language • C++ • Java • Basic
Fourth-generation programming languages:
These are also high-level languages in database programming. It contains statements similar to the statements in a human language. These are also processor independent. These are built to work more with databases, they also deal with larger data rather than in bits and bytes.
Pros and cons of fourth-generation languages:
The system developer of 4GL is faster. It is easily understood by humans as the statements are written quite similar to the human language. Programs that are developed in the fourth-generation language are more portable than any other language. However, they need relatively more space than others. They are executed a little slower by CPU. Examples: • SQL • Perl • Python • Ruby • CSS • ColdFusion
Fifth-generation programming languages:
High-level languages use visual tools to develop a program. They are processor dependent. They are specifically made to run a program without user interference. These are usually used in artificial intelligence.
Pros and cons of fifth-generation languages:
They will promote system automation and will be user friendly. It can reduce the programmer’s effort. However, requires a good amount of resources. Examples: • Mercury • Prolog • OPS5
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